Agriculture, Transport &amp: Industries in Bihar

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Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar: Bihar is one of the fastest-growing states in India. The economy of Bihar is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.27 during 2015-16 and 2019- 20. Bihar has witnessed strong growth in per capita net state domestic product (NSDP). Bihar is mainly agricultural products producing state.

The state has a large base of cost-effective industrial labour, making it an ideal destination for a wide range of industries. As per the Year Book of Road Transport 2013, Bihar was the second-fastest-growing state in India (16.2 per cent) in terms of registration of vehicles during 2009-13. 

Here, we are giving the complete study material of ‘Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar’ that will ease the journey of aspirants to crack the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state-level examinations.


  • Bihar is primarily an agricultural state where farming is subsistent in nature.
  • Foodgrains are the main crops.
  • Gopalganj and Madhepura have the highest net sown area.
  • There are three cropping seasons in Bihar.
  • Kharif Crops
    • They are also called Bhadai and Aghani crops.
    • They are sown in May-June and harvested in September-October.
    • Important crops – Maize, Paddy and Jute.
  • Rabi Crops
    • They are sown in October-November and harvested in March-April.
    • Important crops – Wheat, Gram, Rapeseed and Mustard.
  • Zaid Crops
    • They are produced between Rabi and Kharif crop seasons.
    • Important crops – Muskmelon, Watermelon, Gourd etc.
  • RICE
    • Main cereal crop of Bihar
    • Two crops are grown – Aus (Summer Crop) and Aman (Winter Crop)
    • Maximum area – Madhubani, Aurangabad and Rohtas
    • Maximum production – Rohtas, Aurangabad and West Champaran
    • Maximum productivity – Arwal, Rohtas and Sheikhpura
    • The best suited is sandy soil having the capacity to retain moisture.
    • Ganga Diara and Bagmati plains are most important.
    • Maximum area – Rohtas, East Champaran and Aurangabad
    • Maximum production – Rohtas, Kaimur and Siwan
    • Maximum productivity – Jahanabad, Patna and Gaya
    • Light clay soil is best for maize e.g. Bal Sundari soil
    • Maximum area – Khagaria
    • Maximum production – Katihar, Madhepura and Khagaria
    • Maximum productivity – Katihar
  • JUTE
    • Bihar ranks 2nd in jute production after West Bengal
    • It requires alluvial soil with a large amount of rainfall.
    • Major district for jute production – Kishanganj and Purnea
    • Arhar, gram, urad, masoor, moong and khesari are grown.
    • Maximum area – Patna, Aurangabad and Muzaffarpur
    • Maximum production – Patna, Aurangabad and Nalanda
    • Maximum productivity – Kaimur
  • Bihar is known for its Litchi and Mango production.
  • Litchi of Muzaffarpur is famous all over India.


  • The irrigation potential of Bihar is very high but utilization is very low.
  • Proper irrigation helps in raising the agricultural production thus bettering the lives of people.
  • Bihar also receives a fair amount of rainfall.
  • There is a however uneven distribution of both irrigation facilities and rainfall across various districts.
  • Share of irrigation by Canals is 37% and Tubewells is 30% while wells and ponds account for 30%.
  • Almost 3/4th of the Canal irrigated area is in South Bihar.
    • Eastern Sone Canal taken out from Barun – irrigates Patna, Jahanabad, Aurangabad and Gaya
    • Western Sone Canal has been taken out from Tihri – irrigate Ara, Buxar and Rohtas
    • Two canals took out from Hanuman Nagar reservoir
    • Eastern Kosi Canal – irrigates Purnia, Madhepura and Saharsa.
    • Western Kosi Canal – irrigates Darbhanga district.
    • Two Canals took out from dam at Valmiki Nagar
    • Saran Canal – irrigates Saran, Gopalganj and Siwan
    • Tirhut Canal – irrigates Muzaffarpur, Vaishali and East Champaran
    • It is taken out from Gandak River at Triveni.
    • It irrigates West Champaran district.
    • It is taken out from Kamla River in Darbhanga.
    • It irrigates mainly Madhubani district.


  • Roadways are the most common means of transport used by people.
  • Development of the people cannot be achieved without adequate roads.
  • In terms of road length per lakh population, it is just over 200 km compared to the national average of 358 km.
  • However in terms of road density of 210 km per 100 sq. km, Bihar is much ahead of other states except Kerala and West Bengal
  • The total length of National Highways is 4595 km.
  • Longest NH in Bihar is NH-31 of which 393 km is in Bihar.
  • East-West Corridor
    • It connects Porbandar to Silchar.
    • It passes through 10 districts.
    • Kishanganj, Katihar, Purnia, Araria, Supaul, Madhepura, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, East Champaran and Gopalganj
    • It crosses the Gandak River in Bihar.
    • It consists of NH-27.
  • Golden Quadrilateral
    • It passes through 4 districts.
    • Kaimur, Rohtas, Aurangabad and Gaya.
    • It crosses the Sone River in Bihar.
    • It consists of NH-2 which connects Delhi to Kolkata.
  • Major NHs :
    • NH-19 – Chhapra to Patna
    • NH-57 – Muzaffarpur to Purnia
    • NH-82 – Gaya to Mokama
    • NH-85 – Chhapra to Gopalganj
    • NH-98 – Patna to Rajhara. AIIMS Patna is on this NH.
  • Major Road Bridges :
    • Mahatma Gandhi Setu on Ganga river in Patna
    • Vikramshila Setu on Ganga river in Bhagalpur
  • Major Rail-Road Bridges :
    • Rajendra Setu on Ganga river in Mokama
    • Nehru Setu on Sone river in Dehri-i-Koh
    • Abdul Bari Bridge on Sone river connecting Koilwar and Bhojpur
    • Ganga Rail-Road Bridge on Ganga river connecting Patna and Sonepur


  • Railways started developing quite early in Bihar by the East India Company in 1860-62.
  • Bihar has three railway lines
    • North-Eastern Railway – North Bihar
    • East Central Railway – South Bihar
    • North-East Frontier Railway ­- ­­­North-East Bihar
  • Headquarters of the East Central Railway is located in Hajipur in Vaishali district of Bihar.


  • There are two international airports in Bihar.
    • Jay Prakash Narayan International Airport, Patna
    • Gaya International Airport – It was mainly developed for Buddhist tourism in Gaya.


  • Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
  • It is environment friendly and fuel-efficient.
  • National Waterway-1 that connects Allahabad to Haldia passes through Bihar.
  • Bihar Steamer Service is available at Bararighat in Bhagalpur
  • Ara Canal is also used for navigation purposes.


  • Most of the industries are agro-based.
  • First Sugar manufacturing company was set up by the Dutch in 1840.
  • Bihar State Milk Cooperative Federation (COMFED)
    • It was established in 1983.
    • SUDHA brand is marketed by COMFED.
  • The tea industry in Bihar is mostly concentrated in Kishanganj district.
  • Bhagalpur region has great potential for Silk Industry.
  • Jute Park is being set up at Maranga in Purnia district.
  • The leather industry is concentrated in Muzaffarpur and Mokama. Due to only a few working industries, most of the raw material find a way to Kolkata, Kanpur and Chennai.
  • Bihar Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA)
    • It was constituted under B I A D Act 1974 to promote industrialization in Bihar.
    • It has 4 regional offices in Patna, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur and Bhagalpur.
  • Bharat Wagon and Engineering Company Limited
    • It is a PSU located in Mokama
    • It manufactures rail wagons.
  • Barauni Refinery
    • It is located in Begusarai.
    • It was established in 1964 with the help of USSR.
    • It is owned by Indian Oil Corporation.
    • It receives oil from Numaligarh oilfield in Assam.
  • Major Industrial locations in Bihar
    • Mokama – Leather, Rail Wagons
    • Digha – Leather, Beer
    • Bihta – Sugar
    • Patna – Cracker, Cotton Textile
    • Bhagalpur – Tussar Silk
    • Munger – Gun, Cigarette
    • Gaya – Sugar, Lac, Cotton Textile, Leather
    • Dumraon – Cotton Textile, Laltern
    • Bihar Sharif – Tobacco
    • Darbhanga – Paper
    • Samastipur – Paper mill, Sugar
    • Katihar – Jute, Matchstick
    • Dalmianagar – Cement
    • Hajipur – Plywood

More from us 

Minerals and Energy Resources of Bihar-CLICK HERE

Tourism Sector of Bihar-CLICK HERE

Geography of Bihar-CLICK HERE

Modern History of Bihar Part-2 CLICK HERE

Modern History of Bihar Part-1 –CLICK HERE

Medieval History of Bihar-CLICK HERE

Ancient History of Bihar Part -2CLICK HERE

Ancient History of Bihar Part -1 –CLICK HERE


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