Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar: Bihar is one of the fastest-growing states in India. The economy of Bihar is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.27 during 2015-16 and 2019- 20. Bihar has witnessed strong growth in per capita net state domestic product (NSDP). Bihar is mainly agricultural products producing state.
The state has a large base of cost-effective industrial labour, making it an ideal destination for a wide range of industries. As per the Year Book of Road Transport 2013, Bihar was the second-fastest-growing state in India (16.2 per cent) in terms of registration of vehicles during 2009-13.
Here, we are giving the complete study material of ‘Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar’ that will ease the journey of aspirants to crack the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state-level examinations.
- Bihar is primarily an agricultural state where farming is subsistent in nature.
- Foodgrains are the main crops.
- Gopalganj and Madhepura have the highest net sown area.
- There are three cropping seasons in Bihar.
- Kharif Crops
- They are also called Bhadai and Aghani crops.
- They are sown in May-June and harvested in September-October.
- Important crops – Maize, Paddy and Jute.
- Rabi Crops
- They are sown in October-November and harvested in March-April.
- Important crops – Wheat, Gram, Rapeseed and Mustard.
- Zaid Crops
- They are produced between Rabi and Kharif crop seasons.
- Important crops – Muskmelon, Watermelon, Gourd etc.
- Main cereal crop of Bihar
- Two crops are grown – Aus (Summer Crop) and Aman (Winter Crop)
- Maximum area – Madhubani, Aurangabad and Rohtas
- Maximum production – Rohtas, Aurangabad and West Champaran
- Maximum productivity – Arwal, Rohtas and Sheikhpura
- The best suited is sandy soil having the capacity to retain moisture.
- Ganga Diara and Bagmati plains are most important.
- Maximum area – Rohtas, East Champaran and Aurangabad
- Maximum production – Rohtas, Kaimur and Siwan
- Maximum productivity – Jahanabad, Patna and Gaya
- Light clay soil is best for maize e.g. Bal Sundari soil
- Maximum area – Khagaria
- Maximum production – Katihar, Madhepura and Khagaria
- Maximum productivity – Katihar
- Bihar ranks 2nd in jute production after West Bengal
- It requires alluvial soil with a large amount of rainfall.
- Major district for jute production – Kishanganj and Purnea
- Arhar, gram, urad, masoor, moong and khesari are grown.
- Maximum area – Patna, Aurangabad and Muzaffarpur
- Maximum production – Patna, Aurangabad and Nalanda
- Maximum productivity – Kaimur
- Bihar is known for its Litchi and Mango production.
- Litchi of Muzaffarpur is famous all over India.
- The irrigation potential of Bihar is very high but utilization is very low.
- Proper irrigation helps in raising the agricultural production thus bettering the lives of people.
- Bihar also receives a fair amount of rainfall.
- There is a however uneven distribution of both irrigation facilities and rainfall across various districts.
- Share of irrigation by Canals is 37% and Tubewells is 30% while wells and ponds account for 30%.
- Almost 3/4th of the Canal irrigated area is in South Bihar.
- SONE CANAL
- Eastern Sone Canal taken out from Barun – irrigates Patna, Jahanabad, Aurangabad and Gaya
- Western Sone Canal has been taken out from Tihri – irrigate Ara, Buxar and Rohtas
- KOSI CANAL
- Two canals took out from Hanuman Nagar reservoir
- Eastern Kosi Canal – irrigates Purnia, Madhepura and Saharsa.
- Western Kosi Canal – irrigates Darbhanga district.
- GANDAK CANAL
- Two Canals took out from dam at Valmiki Nagar
- Saran Canal – irrigates Saran, Gopalganj and Siwan
- Tirhut Canal – irrigates Muzaffarpur, Vaishali and East Champaran
- TRIVENI CANAL
- It is taken out from Gandak River at Triveni.
- It irrigates West Champaran district.
- KAMLA CANAL
- It is taken out from Kamla River in Darbhanga.
- It irrigates mainly Madhubani district.
- Roadways are the most common means of transport used by people.
- Development of the people cannot be achieved without adequate roads.
- In terms of road length per lakh population, it is just over 200 km compared to the national average of 358 km.
- However in terms of road density of 210 km per 100 sq. km, Bihar is much ahead of other states except Kerala and West Bengal
- The total length of National Highways is 4595 km.
- Longest NH in Bihar is NH-31 of which 393 km is in Bihar.
- East-West Corridor
- It connects Porbandar to Silchar.
- It passes through 10 districts.
- Kishanganj, Katihar, Purnia, Araria, Supaul, Madhepura, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, East Champaran and Gopalganj
- It crosses the Gandak River in Bihar.
- It consists of NH-27.
- Golden Quadrilateral
- It passes through 4 districts.
- Kaimur, Rohtas, Aurangabad and Gaya.
- It crosses the Sone River in Bihar.
- It consists of NH-2 which connects Delhi to Kolkata.
- Major NHs :
- NH-19 – Chhapra to Patna
- NH-57 – Muzaffarpur to Purnia
- NH-82 – Gaya to Mokama
- NH-85 – Chhapra to Gopalganj
- NH-98 – Patna to Rajhara. AIIMS Patna is on this NH.
- Major Road Bridges :
- Mahatma Gandhi Setu on Ganga river in Patna
- Vikramshila Setu on Ganga river in Bhagalpur
- Major Rail-Road Bridges :
- Rajendra Setu on Ganga river in Mokama
- Nehru Setu on Sone river in Dehri-i-Koh
- Abdul Bari Bridge on Sone river connecting Koilwar and Bhojpur
- Ganga Rail-Road Bridge on Ganga river connecting Patna and Sonepur
- Railways started developing quite early in Bihar by the East India Company in 1860-62.
- Bihar has three railway lines
- North-Eastern Railway – North Bihar
- East Central Railway – South Bihar
- North-East Frontier Railway - North-East Bihar
- Headquarters of the East Central Railway is located in Hajipur in Vaishali district of Bihar.
- There are two international airports in Bihar.
- Jay Prakash Narayan International Airport, Patna
- Gaya International Airport – It was mainly developed for Buddhist tourism in Gaya.
- Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
- It is environment friendly and fuel-efficient.
- National Waterway-1 that connects Allahabad to Haldia passes through Bihar.
- Bihar Steamer Service is available at Bararighat in Bhagalpur
- Ara Canal is also used for navigation purposes.
- Most of the industries are agro-based.
- First Sugar manufacturing company was set up by the Dutch in 1840.
- Bihar State Milk Cooperative Federation (COMFED)
- It was established in 1983.
- SUDHA brand is marketed by COMFED.
- The tea industry in Bihar is mostly concentrated in Kishanganj district.
- Bhagalpur region has great potential for Silk Industry.
- Jute Park is being set up at Maranga in Purnia district.
- The leather industry is concentrated in Muzaffarpur and Mokama. Due to only a few working industries, most of the raw material find a way to Kolkata, Kanpur and Chennai.
- Bihar Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA)
- It was constituted under B I A D Act 1974 to promote industrialization in Bihar.
- It has 4 regional offices in Patna, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur and Bhagalpur.
- Bharat Wagon and Engineering Company Limited
- It is a PSU located in Mokama
- It manufactures rail wagons.
- Barauni Refinery
- It is located in Begusarai.
- It was established in 1964 with the help of USSR.
- It is owned by Indian Oil Corporation.
- It receives oil from Numaligarh oilfield in Assam.
- Major Industrial locations in Bihar
- Mokama – Leather, Rail Wagons
- Digha – Leather, Beer
- Bihta – Sugar
- Patna – Cracker, Cotton Textile
- Bhagalpur – Tussar Silk
- Munger – Gun, Cigarette
- Gaya – Sugar, Lac, Cotton Textile, Leather
- Dumraon – Cotton Textile, Laltern
- Bihar Sharif – Tobacco
- Darbhanga – Paper
- Samastipur – Paper mill, Sugar
- Katihar – Jute, Matchstick
- Dalmianagar – Cement
- Hajipur – Plywood
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