The most important articles of the Indian Constitution

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The most important articles of the Indian Constitution

S. No.ElementsArticle
1.Fundamental Rights12-35
2.Directive Principles of State Policy36 – 51
3.Fundamental Duties specified for citizens of India51 A
4.Official Language of Union Government of India – Hindi (Until it was changed to English)343
5.The imposition of President’s Rule356
6.Autonomous Status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir370
7.Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935395

Other Important articles you must read and get a fair idea

Part of the Indian ConstitutionElementsArticle
  IIndia as Union of States & the territories of the states1
Admission and Establishment of New States2
Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States3
  IICitizenship at the commencement of the Constitution5
Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan6
Continuance of the rights of citizenship10
Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.11
IIIDefinition of the State12
Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights13
Fundamental Rights of the Citizens of India14-35
1.       Right to Equality14 -18
a)    Right to Equality – Equality before the law14
b)       Right to Equality – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth15
c)       Right to Equality – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment16
d)       Right to Equality – Abolition of the untouchability17
e)       Right to Equality – Abolition of titles18
2.       Right to Freedom19-22
a)       Guarantees to all the citizens of IndiaRight to freedom of speech and expressionRight to assemble peacefully and without armsRight to form associations or unionsRight to move freely throughout the territory of IndiaRight to reside and settle in any part of the territory of IndiaRight to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business19        
b)      Protection in respect of conviction for offences20
c)       Protection of life & personal liberty21
d)       Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases22
Also Read:a)       Right to Information 
19(1)
b)       Right to privacy21
c)       Right to education21(A)
3.       Right Against Exploitation23-24
a)       Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour23
b)       Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines for under the age of 1424
4.       Right to Freedom of Religion25 – 28
a)       Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion25
b)       Freedom to manage religious affairs26
c)       Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion27
d)       Freedom from attending religious instruction28
5.       Cultural & Educational Rights29 – 30
a)       Protection of interest of minorities29
b)       The right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions30
6.       Right to Constitutional Remedies31 – 35
a)       Right to property (Repealed/Abolished)31
b)       Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights32
c)       Power of Parliament to modify the rights in their application to Forces, etc.33
d)       Restriction on rights while martial law is in force in any area34
e)       Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, the power to make lawsAny law in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in the territory of India continue in force until altered or repealed or amended by Parliament Explanation35
IVDirective Principles of State Policy36-51
1.       Definition36
2.       Application of the Principles37
3.       State to Secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of people38
4.       Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state39
5.       Equal Justice & free legal aid39 (A)
6.       The organisation of Village panchayats40
7.       Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases41
8.       Provision for just and humane conditions of work & maternity relief42
9.       Living Wages, etc. for Workers43
10.    Participation of workers in management of industries43 (A)
11.    Uniform Civil Code for the citizens44
12.    Provision for free & compulsory education for children (stands substituted until date further announced)45
13.    Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST, and OBC46
14.    The duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health47
15.    The organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry48
16.    Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife48 (A)
17.    Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance49
18.    Separation of judiciary from the executive50
19.    Promotion of international peace and security51
20.    Fundamental Duties (originally 10 & now 11 duties by the 86thamendment act 2002)a)       to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthemb)       to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedomc)       to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of Indiad)       to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do soe)       to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of womenf)        to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite cultureg)       to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creaturesh)       to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reformi)         to safeguard public property and to abjure violencej)         to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievementk)       who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years (Stands not-in-force until the date is notified)51 (A)
VThe Union52 – 151
The President of India52
Executive Power of the union53
Election of President54
The manner of election of President55
Procedure for Impeachment of the President61
The Vice President of India63
Election of Vice-president66
Pardoning powers of President72
Council of Ministers to aid and advise President74
Constitution of Parliament79
The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people93
Powers, Privileges, etc of the House of Parliament105
Special procedure in respect of money bills109
Definition of “Money Bills”.110
Annual Financial Budget112
Appropriation Bills114
Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament123
Establishment of Supreme Court124
Appointment of acting Chief justice126
Supreme court to be a court of Record129
The seat of the Supreme court130
Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court136
Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme court137
The decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts141
Comptroller and Auditor- General of India148
Duties & Powers of CAG149
VIThe States152 – 237
Definition152
Governors of the State153
The executive power of the State154
Appointment of Governor155
The term of office of Governor156
Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies160
Pardoning powers of the Governor161
Advocate-General of the State165
Language to be used in the Legislature210
Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances213
High Courts for states214
High Courts to be a court of record215
Power of High Courts to issue certain writs226
Appointment of District judges233
Control over Sub-Ordinate Courts235
VIIThe States (Part B) – Repealed in the 7th Amendment Act, 1956238
VIIIThe Union Territories239 – 242
Administration of Union Territories239
Special provisions with respect to Delhi239 (AA)
Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories240
High Courts for Union territories241
IXThe Panchayats243 A-O
a)       Definitions243
b)       Gram Sabha243 (A)
c)       Constitution of Panchayats243 (B)
d)       Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats243 (G)
e)       Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters243 (O)
IX (A)The Municipalities243 P – ZG
XThe Scheduled & Tribal Areas244
XIRelations between the Union & the states245 – 263
XIIFinance, Property, Contracts and Suits264 – 300
Interpretation264
Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.266
Contingency Fund267
Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States268
Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States269
Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States270
Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union271
Finance Commission280
Borrowing by the Government of India292
Borrowing by States293
Suits and proceedings300
XIIITrade, Commerce and Intercourse within the Territory of India301 – 307
Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse301
Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse302
Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304307
XIVServices Under the Union and the States308 – 323
Interpretation308
Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State309
All-India services312
Public service commissions for the union and for the states315
Functions of Public Service Commission320
XIV (A)Tribunals323 (A) – 323 (B)
Administrative Tribunals323 (A)
Tribunals for other matters323 (B)
XVElections324 – 329
 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission324
 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex325
 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage326
XVISpecial Provisions Relating to Certain Classes330 – 342
National Commission for the SC, & ST338
Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes340
Scheduled Castes341
Scheduled Tribes342
XVIIOfficial Language343 – 351
The official language of the Union343
Official languages or languages of states345
Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts348
Directive for development of the Hindi languages351
XVIIIEmergency Provisions352 – 360
Proclamation of Emergency352
The duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance355
Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States356
Provisions as to financial emergency360
XIXMiscellaneous361 – 367
Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs361
Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union365
Definitions366
Interpretation367
XXAmendment of the Constitutions368
XXITemporary, Transitional and Special Provisions369 – 392
Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List369
Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir370
XXIIShort title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India393 – 395
Short title393
Commencement394
Authoritative text in the Hindi language394 (A)
Repeals395

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